Baked Fish: “Psari Plaki”

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

In Greek, psari (psah-REE) means ‘fish’ and plaki (plah-KEE) means ‘spread out’ or ‘flat’. The word plaki is derived from Greek roots plak, plat, and platys, all meaning ‘broad’ or ‘flat’. Plak originally referred to an ancient griddle stone which functioned as a flat oven for food to be cooked on. Some English words derived from these roots include ‘plate’,’platter’, ‘platen’ (a flat plate in a printing press which presses paper against inked type, thus creating an impression; the roller of a typewriter)), ‘plateau’ (broad, nearly level, or flat surface of high elevation), ‘platform’ (flat, elevated piece of ground or flooring), and ‘platypus’ (flat-footed duckbill).

Plaki refers to a method of cooking, usually with olive oil, garlic, onions, tomatoes, parsley, and often other vegetables. While baked fish plaki is very popular, beans plaki and vegetable plaki are also made.

Psari plaki consists of whole small fish, or larger fish cut into steaks or cutlets, or fish fillets, laid flat while cooking in the traditional sauce. The recipe works well with any firm white fish: cod, tilapia, haddock, halibut, mackerel, snapper, or whatever type you have available.

The following oven-baked recipe is delicious, nourishing, heart-healthy, and easily prepared. Experiment and adapt the recipe to your liking, adding different ingredients, herbs, and spices to the sauce!

Servings: 6-9 servings

Ingredients:

  • 2-3 lbs. fresh seasonal fish fillets or frozen white fish fillets, such as wild Alaskan halibut, wild Pacific Cod, haddock, or tilapia
  • Pepper and salt
  • Juice of 2 lemons
  • 1/2-1 cup olive oil
  • 2-4 large onions, chopped
  • 1/2-1 cup white wine
  • 4-6 medium-size fresh tomatoes, sliced, chopped, or diced, or 1 28-ounce can diced tomatoes, or 2-3 pints grape tomatoes
  • 1/2 cup (or more) chopped carrots, celery
  • 2-4 cloves garlic, crushed or minced
  • 1 cup chopped fresh dill
  • 1 1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley
  • 1 fresh tomato, sliced
  • 1 fresh lemon, sliced

Directions:

  1. Arrange fish fillets in large baking dish or pan and sprinkle with lemon juice, pepper, and salt.
  2. In a large sauce pan, heat the oil and cook the onion until soft. Add wine, chopped vegetables and herbs (tomatoes, carrots, celery, garlic, dill, and parsley) , saving 1/2 cup parsley, fresh sliced tomato and lemon for later.
  3. Simmer the mixture for 15 minutes.
  4. Cover fish in pan with this mixture and add tomato slices, parsley, and lemon slices on top.
  5. Bake for 30-40 minutes at 350 degrees.

Variations:

  1. Dried basil and/or oregano may be sprinkled on top of mixture before placing in oven.
  2. Chopped scallions, or larger amounts of chopped fresh dill and parsley may be added to above recipe. (My philosophy is that the more herbs and vegetables added to a meal, the more heart-healthy, nutritious, and satisfying it becomes. Many herbs, including dill, parsley, and scallions, provide various antioxidants, calcium, magnesium, potassium, folic acid, vitamin C, and have anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic properties. I generally add both entire bunches of washed and chopped dill and parsley to the above recipe, as well as more of all the vegetables.)
  3. Tomatoes, scallions, parsley, and garlic may be sautéed in oil before they are added to the baking dish.
  4. Toasted, sliced almonds may be sprinkled over the warm fish before serving.
  5. Serve fish plaki with crusty bread and a seasonal salad, or boiled potatoes, or steamed rice.

Kali Orexi!    Bon Appetit!

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Animal studies have demonstrated that the colon is more vulnerable to inflammation when estrogen is given, and that estrogen alters permeability of the colon.

New research findings presented by Dr. Hamid Khalili, on May 20, 2012 at the Digestive Disease Week* meeting in San Diego, California, indicate that the use of oral contraceptives by younger women or hormone therapy by older women may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease. ** According to Khalili, a clinical and research fellow of gastroenterology at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston:

  1. Birth control pills are associated with a higher risk for Crohn’s disease: The most common symptoms of Crohn’s disease include abdominal pain (often in the lower right side), diarrhea, weight loss, rectal bleeding, and fever. Inflammation of the lining and wall of the large or small intestine, or both, may occur. The lining can become so inflamed it bleeds. Another complication of Crohn’s disease is blockage or stricture of the intestine. This occurs when the disease thickens the bowel wall with swelling and scar tissue. The intestinal passage becomes smaller and smaller, until it is completely closed.
  2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) taken by some women after menopause is linked with ulcerative colitis: This disease of the colon (large intestine) or rectum is associated with abdominal cramping and pain, rectal bleeding and/or blood in the stool, ongoing bouts of diarrhea which do not respond to over-the -counter medications, and/or unexplained fever lasting more than a day or two.

Of the two findings, Khalili said the association with birth control pills and Crohn’s is the most relevant to patients and especially true for long-term users. “If you took oral contraceptives for more than five years, you have a threefold increased risk of Crohn’s disease,” he noted.

For the first study in younger women, Khalili and his colleagues analyzed data collected from approximately 233,000 women who had been enrolled in the large U.S. Nurses Health Studies I and II. Data from the beginning of the first study, 1976, through 2008 indicated 309 cases of Crohn’s disease and 362 of ulcerative colitis. Khalili’s analysis compared those who never used birth control pills to those who did. Current users had a nearly three times greater risk of Crohn’s disease. Those who used birth control pills had no increased risk of getting ulcerative colitis, compared with never-users.

In the second study, Khalili examined data collected from nearly 109,000 women past menopause who were enrolled in the Nurses Health Study that began in 1976 and followed through 2008. He found 138 cases of Crohn’s disease and 138 of ulcerative colitis. Those on hormone therapy had a 1.7 times higher risk of ulcerative colitis, compared to never-users. No link was found with Crohn’s disease.

While the studies uncovered an association between the hormone-based therapies and digestive problems, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

Although Khalili stated “We probably don’t have a clear mechanism,” he noted that animal studies have demonstrated that the colon is more vulnerable to inflammation when estrogen is given, and that estrogen alters permeability of the colon.

Dr. David Bernstein, a gastroenterologist and chief of hepatology at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y., indicated that the findings are probably of greater concern in younger women. According to Bernstein, the study of older women showed that “the risk may be present, but it seems to be quite small.” The link appears stronger for oral contraceptive use and Crohn’s disease. Older women on hormone therapy probably do not need to be concerned.

However, Bernstein noted that “younger women on oral contraceptives need to be told that there is an increased risk.”

Khalili agreed and advised that women on birth control pills who have a strong family history of IBD should be made aware of the research finding a link. A link is not a cause-and-effect relationship, but simply an association. Still, he said, they should be aware, in case they wish to choose another form of birth control.

The above findings should serve as a warning to all of us regarding the use of hormones by the meat and dairy industry, and the possibility of future use of growth hormones in the fish farming industry for salmon and tilapia, which is currently being discussed in Washington, D.C.

*Digestive Disease Week is jointly sponsored by the following four societies:

  1. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
  2. American Gastroenterological Association Institute
  3. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
  4. Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.

**Estrogen can increase cholesterol and reduce gallbladder motility. Women who are pregnant or who take birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy have higher levels of estrogen and may be more likely to develop gallstones.

A co-author on both studies reports consulting work for Pfizer, Millennium Pharmaceuticals and Bayer AG.

Because this research was presented at a medical meeting, the data and conclusions should be viewed as preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

References:

  1. Digestive Disorders Health Center: Gallstones. WebMD. LLC. 2014.
  2. Doheny, Kathleen. “Birth Control Pills, HRT Tied to Digestive Ills.” Health Day News: Health Day.May 21, 2012.
  3. Khalili, Hamed, M.D., M.P.H., clinical and research fellow, gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; David Bernstein, M.D., gastroenterologist and chief, hepatology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, N.Y.; May 20, 2012, presentation, Digestive Disease Week meeting, San Diego, California.
  4. NIH Publication No. 06-3410; February 2006: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov.
  5. www.mayoclinic.com/health/ulcerative-colitis/DS00598/D


 

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Seafood Safety for Women

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

Fish is an excellent source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and other nutrients for people of all ages and an exceptionally good food for pregnant mothers and their developing babies. Research has shown that fish consumption may actually enhance development of the nervous system in the developing fetus, infant, and young child. However, contamination with toxic mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other environmental pollutants has cast a shadow over the nutritional benefits of fish.

Methylmercury is toxic to the fetal brain and nervous system, and many popular fish species are contaminated with it. The principal exposure route for the fetus is consumption of contaminated fish by the mother. Women who eat fish during pregnancy, even as little as a single serving of a highly contaminated fish, may expose their developing child to excessive levels of methylmercury. The toxic metal can cross the placenta to damage the rapidly developing nervous system, including the brain, of the fetus. The risk of learning deficits, developmental delays, neurological problems, future school problems and remedial special education, increase in children who have been exposed even to relatively low levels of methylmercury in the womb.

The accumulation of methylmercury, PCBs, endocrine disruptors,and other toxins in the food chain in general may also be contributing to the increasing incidence of attention deficit disorders (ADD, ADHD), hyperactivity, behavior and developmental problems, as well as autism.

What is the source of mercury in our seafood? Combustion in power plants of coal containing mercury is the major source of this environmental pollution. Mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants moves through the air, is deposited in water, and finds its way into fish, accumulating especially in fish that are higher up the food chain. Fish like tuna, sea bass, marlin, and halibut show some of the worst contamination, but dozens of species and thousands of water bodies have been seriously polluted.

The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) safe exposure estimate for methylmercury was dropped twice in the past 16 years, as science identified adverse effects in children exposed in the womb at lower and lower doses. The current safe dose may drop even lower in the future (NAS 2000). No one knows how long a fetus can tolerate a dose of methylmercury above a “safe level” without observable adverse effects.

On January 12, 2001, government health officials issued warnings for women to limit fish consumption during pregnancy to avoid exposing their unborn children to unsafe levels of methylmercury.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates commercially sold fish, recommends that pregnant and nursing women and young children not eat any shark, swordfish, tilefish, or king mackerel, but then recommends 12 ounces per week of any other fish. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which makes recommendations to states about safe mercury levels in sport fish, allows up to 8 ounces of any fish per week for pregnant women, with no limits on consumption of any individual fish caught recreationally.

While these restrictions are steps in the right direction, they need to be tightened significantly to adequately protect women and their unborn children from the toxic effects of methylmercury and other contaminants.

The lack of information for pregnant women regarding methylmercury risks and mercury levels in the fish they buy pose another serious problem. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 10 percent of all women of childbearing age have blood methylmercury levels above the dose that may put their fetus at risk for adverse neurological effects (CDC 2001). If these women were to increase their consumption of certain fish species in hopes of benefiting their babies during pregnancy, they could expose their fetuses to potentially hazardous levels of methylmercury.

The following list was recently published by the Environmental Working Group (EWG):

AVOID IF PREGNANT:

Shark
Swordfish
King mackerel
Tilefish
Tuna steaks
Canned tuna
Sea bass
Gulf Coast Oysters
Marlin
Halibut
Pike
Walleye
White croaker
Largemouth bass

EAT NO MORE THAN ONE SERVING FROM THIS LIST PER MONTH:

Mahi mahi
Blue mussel
Eastern oyster
Cod
Pollock
Great Lakes salmon
Gulf Coast blue crab
Channel catfish (wild)
Lake whitefish

LOWEST IN MERCURY:

Blue crab (mid-Atlantic)
Croaker
Fish Sticks
Flounder (summer)
Haddock
Trout (farmed)
Salmon (wild Pacific)
Shrimp: Pink shrimp from Oregon, spot prawns from Canada *

* Shrimp fishing and farming practices have raised serious environmental concerns.

** Farmed catfish have low mercury levels but may contain PCBs in amounts of concern for pregnant women.

Data from the 1970s show high concentrations in the following species (No recent data available):

Porgy
Orange Roughy
Snapper
Lake Trout
Bluefish
Bonito
Rockfish

References:

  1. “Complete List of Seafood Eco-Ratings: Which fish are safe for you and the oceans?” Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010. General Information: (800) 684-3322. Copyright © 2011 Environmental Defense Fund. All Rights Reserved. Posted: 10/03/08; Updated: 05/08/12. (Source: apps.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=1540).
  2. “Safe Seafood Selector.” Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). 05/02/12.(Source: www.edf.org/).
  3. “Seafood Selector: Fish choices that are good for you and the ocean.” Downloadable and printable Pocket Guide (PDF). Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). 06/2011. (Source: www.edf.org/).
  4. “Seafood Watch: National Sustainable Seafood Guide.” Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. January 2012. (Source: www.seafoodwatch.org).
  5. “What Women Should KnowAbout Mercury in Fish.” Environmental Working Group (EWG). Headquarters: 1436 U Street. NW, Suite 100. Washington, D.C. 20009.  (202) 667-6982. (California Office: 2201 Broadway, Suite 308, Oakland, CA. 94612; Midwest Office: 103 E. 6th Street, Suite 201, Ames, IA. 50010; Sacramento Office: 1107 9th Street, Suite 340, Sacramento, CA. 95814). Copyright 2007-2012.
  6. www.edf.org/seafoodhealth

 

 

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Seafood Safe for You and the Oceans

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

Fish and shellfish are good sources of protein and iodine and lower in saturated fat than most meats, including chicken and turkey. Some varieties of fish and shellfish, including Albacore tuna, salmon, mackerel, herring, and sardines, also provide omega-3 fatty acids which are important for heart health. Omega-3 fatty acids can help lower triglycerides (fats in the blood which raise the risk of heart disease) and prevent inflammation which plays a major role in the aging process as well as various health disorders.

Most people would benefit by eating at least 2 servings of fish a week. Substitute baked, broiled, poached, or grilled fish for meat. Try to avoid breaded or fried fish when possible, to reduce dietary fat and calories.

Worldwide, the demand for seafood is increasing. Many populations of the large fish have been overfished. As a result, the United States now imports over 80% of our seafood to meet the demand. Unfortunately, global demand is also promoting destructive fishing and fish-farming practices.

A “Complete List of Seafood Eco-Ratings” was posted by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) on 10/03/08 and updated on 05/08/12. The EDF list represents one of the best sources of information regarding seafood currently deemed safe for consumption, as well as for the ocean’s health and sustainability. Note that some fish of the same species may contain more environmental contaminants than others, depending on the geographic location and waters in which they are caught.

Try to select “Eco-Best”seafood which is abundant, well-managed, and caught or farmed using environmentally-friendly practices from the following alphabetized list to reduce your intake of mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants:

  • Abalone: All farmed abalone
  • Alewife
  • Anchovies
  • Arctic Char: farmed*
  • Barramundi from U.S.
  • Catfish from U.S.
  • Clams: Both farmed and soft-shell
  • Cobia: U.S. farmed
  • Cod: Pacific (U.S. non-trawled), AK cod caught by longline
  • Crab: Both Dungeness and Stone
  • Crawfish from U.S.
  • Croaker: Atlantic, not caught by trawl
  • Haddock: from U.S. caught by hook and line
  • Halibut: Pacific caught in Alaska and Canada
  • Herring from Atlantic*
  • Lobster: California spiny lobster (U.S.) and caribbean spiny lobster (U.S.)
  • Mackerel: Atlantic mackerel from Canada
  • Mahimahi: U.S., caught by troll/pole
  • Mullet: Striped mullet
  • Mussels: Farmed
  • Oysters: Farmed (eco-best) or wild (eco-ok)*
  • Sablefish/black cod from Alaska and Canada*
  • Salmon: Wild Alaskan salmon (canned, fresh, or prefrozen)*
  • Sardines: Pacific sardines from U.S.*
  • Scallops: Farmed bay scallops
  • Sea urchin from Canada
  • Shrimp: Pink shrimp from Oregon, spot prawns from Canada
  • Smelt
  • Spotted seatrout from Louisiana and Florida
  • Striped bass: farmed (Limit consumption of wild striped bass due to concerns about mercury or other contaminants)
  • Squid: Longfin from U.S.
  • Tilapia from U.S.
  • Trout: Rainbow (U.S.farmed)*
  • Tuna: Albacore from Canada and U.S. Pacific (troll/pole); Skipjack and yellowfin from U.S. Atlantic caught by troll/pole* **
  • Wreckfish

*Fish high in heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids and low in environmental contaminants include: Arctic char, Atlantic herring, oysters, sablefish/black cod, canned salmon, wild Alaskan salmon, Pacific sardines from the U.S., farmed rainbow trout, albacore tuna from the U.S. or Canada, and yellowfin tuna from the U.S. Atlantic caught by troll/pole.

**Fish high in mercury or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) include: All bluefish, Chilean sea bass, blue crab, summer flounder , lingcod, blue marlin from Hawaii, striped marlin, opah, orange roughy, yellow perch from Lake Huron or Lake Ontario, rockfish, wild salmon from California, Oregon, and Washington, farmed or Atlantic salmon, mutton snapper, Atlantic and imported wild sturgeon, U.S. and imported swordfish, tilefish, canned white/albacore and bluefin tuna, wahoo, and walleye.

References:

  1. “Complete List of Seafood Eco-Ratings: Which fish are safe for you and the oceans?” Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010. General Information: (800) 684-3322. Copyright © 2011 Environmental Defense Fund. All Rights Reserved. Posted: 10/03/08; Updated: 05/08/12. (Source: apps.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=1540).
  2. “Seafood Selector: Fish choices that are good for you and the ocean.” Downloadable and printable Pocket Guide (PDF). Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). 06/2011. (Source: www.edf.org/).
  3. “Safe Seafood Selector.” Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). 05/02/12.(Source: www.edf.org/).
  4. “Seafood Watch: National Sustainable Seafood Guide.” Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. January 2012. (Source: www.seafoodwatch.org).
  5. www.edf.org/seafoodhealth

 

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Weight Loss Tips in a Nutshell!

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

  1. Drink plenty of clean, fresh water each day: About 8-10 cups on average, or as much as you comfortably can, with and between meals. Hydrate yourself more when extremely active, in the heat and sun, or engaged in athletics.
  2. Try to establish a routine and eat at the same time each day.
  3. Eat slowly: Take time to savor and chew each bite of food carefully and thoughtfully.
  4. Start the day with a nutritious breakfast: A whole fresh fruit (apple, banana, grapefruit, orange, papaya, pear, etc.), instead of juice. A boiled or poached egg, or serving of lowfat or nonfat plain kefir, yogurt, or cottage cheese with a sprinkling of wheat germ, ground flaxseeds, walnuts, or other nuts, or bowl of old-fashioned or steel-cut oatmeal cooked with skim milk or water, or other high-fiber cereal without sugar or flavorings added, like shredded wheat, bran flakes, kamut, cream of wheat, can keep you satisfied and prevent your blood sugar from dropping significantly for several hours.
  5. At lunch and dinner, fill half or more of your plate with vegetables and/or fruit, one quarter of the plate with whole grains, and one quarter with a nutritious source of protein. Include three ounces of protein at each meal like beans, edamame, lentils, tofu, eggs, non-fat or low-fat dairy products, fish, chicken and turkey from which all skin and fat have been removed, or lean beef from which all fat has been trimmed. Protein helps to maintain steady blood glucose levels and curbs the appetite longer than carbohydrates.
  6. Have a cup of unsweetened, non-caffeinated, herbal tea following dinner, with a piece of fresh fruit, instead of a rich dessert or unhealthy snack.
  7. When you shop, buy unprocessed, “nutrient-dense” foods (i.e., foods with many natural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins per calorie) as close to the way Mother Nature grew them as possible. If you can afford them, choose U.S.D.A. organic foods when available, in order to reduce your intake of pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones.
  8. Avoid between-meal snacks.
  9. Snack on fresh vegetables and fruit, when you’re unable to avoid between-meal snacking.
  10. Fill up on fresh fruits and vegetables, especially when in season and grown locally. Wholesome, unflavored, frozen versions of such produce can be just as nutritious and satisfying and often has been treated with fewer pesticides than comparable fresh produce.
  11. Slowly increase your intake of foods naturally high in dietary fiber, and drink plenty of fluids, in order to avoid bloating and gas: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains (barley, brown rice, kamut, old-fashioned or steel-cut oatmeal, quinoa, shredded wheat, wheat berries, spelt or whole wheat pasta, etc.), legumes (beans, lentils, nuts, and seeds), more often. High-fiber foods can help you lose weight and maintain your weight loss, because they take longer to chew than processed foods and provide a sense of fullness and satisfaction with fewer calories. Moreover, intake of foods naturally high in dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, constipation, diabetes, diverticulitis, obesity. Both edamame (soybeans) and quinoa provide compete protein. Drink extra water whenever you increase your intake of fiber-rich foods, in order to improve their digestion and facilitate passage through the intestine.
  12. Make vegetables a main course.
  13. Eat more beans and legumes, instead of  meat and full-fat dairy products.
  14. Avoid foods containing sugar, salt, high-fructose corn syrup, brown rice syrup, modified food starch, artificial colorings, flavorings, or sweeteners, preservatives such as BHT, BHA, sodium benzoate (a preservative in most sodas and many processed foods), saturated animal fats, trans fats, and partially hydrogenated ingredients.
  15. Eat foods as close to their natural state as possible for maximum concentration of antioxidants, fiber, minerals, and vitamins.
  16. Avoid or minimize intake of foods prepared with white flour: White bread, pasta, cakes, cookies, pastries, as well as processed, and prepared foods.
  17. Eat unsweetened fruit in place of juices and rich desserts.
  18. Cook food in ways that reduce fat, e.g., baking, boiling, broiling, grilling, roasting, stewing. Skim any fat that solidifies on the surface after the food has been refrigerated.
  19. Don’t eat in front of the TV, or while using a cell phone, computer, or other distracting technology: Enjoy your meal with family or friends, at a table or counter, focus on what you are eating, and chew slowly.
  20. Turn off the TV! Sitting in front of the television lowers your metabolic rate (the rate at which you burn calories), slows circulation of blood, contributes to inflammation, heart and vascular disease, weakens your immune system, and promotes munching of extra calories and fattening snack foods.
  21. Sleep longer: At least 8-10 hours of sleep  each night, to naturally improve your daily energy level, ability to focus and concentrate, and reduce fatigue, as well as, the risk of accidents and mistakes.
  22. Get regular physical activity: Walk and exercise as much as possible each day, climb stairs, avoid taking the elevator or escalator whenever you can, limit how long you sit, whether in front of the computer, television, while watching a movie, or sitting in an airplane. Try to exercise at least three times a week, or get some chores done before sitting down to breakfast. Your heart, blood vessels, muscles, organs, skeleton, and waistline will all benefit. Furthermore you will concentrate, focus, and feel better, more positive, and less depressed, as well as improve your flexibility, range of motion. Encourage your friend(s), spouse, or significant other to accompany you when you go for a long walk.
  23. Lift light weights periodically to improve and maintain muscle strength and tone.
  24. Maintain a “diet history” by recording your daily food (and snack) intake: Try to approximate your daily calorie intake with this list. It may motivate you to select more nutrient-dense foods and discourage you from over indulging in empty calories as the day progresses.
  25. “Eat to live” a heart-healthy life. “Don’t live to eat.”

References:

  1. Danziger, Lucy and the staff at SELF. “Seven Secrets of Slim People.” YAHOO! HEALTH. March 22, 2011.
  2. “Eat like the Greeks for better health: Mediterranean diet shown to reduce risk of cardiovascular, chronic diseases.” Heart Center News. Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Nutrition and Food Services. April 27, 2009.
  3. “High-fiber Diets and Weight Loss.” WebMD: Better Information, Better Health. 2010. (Article link: http://www.webmd.com/diet/fiber-health-benefits-11/fiber-weight-control)
  4. “Hippocrates.” World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 9. World Book, Inc.: Chicago, 1986. page 227.
  5. Pratt, Steven and Kathy Matthews. Fourteen Foods That Will Change Your Life: Superfoods Rx. Harper  Collins Publishers, New York: 2004. pp. 90, 172.
  6. Sizer, Frances Sienkiewicz and Ellie Whitney. Nutrition Concepts and Controversies: 11th Edition. Thomson Wadsworth, California: 2008, pp. 180-184.
  7. “The Mediterranean Diet: A Better Way to Eat?” Consumer Reports on Health. Vol. 6, No. 11, November 1994.
  8. “Why Should I Lose Weight?.” American Heart Association. Publication: 10/07LS1466. October, 2007.
  9. Williams, Spice. “History of Health and Medicine” and “Health and Medicine Quotes.” The Spice of Life. (Source: www.spice-of-life.com/quotes.html)
  10. www.americanpregnancy.org/…fishmercury.htm

 

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Old-Fashioned Ailments From Classic Literature:     Modern Equivalent:

  1. Ague……………………………………………………………….Malarial fever
  2. Bilious fever…………………………………………………….Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis
  3. Biliousness………………………………………………………Jaundice associated with liver disease
  4. Black plague or death……………………………………….Bubonic plague
  5. Brain fever………………………………………………………Meningitis
  6. Catalepsy…………………………………………………………Seizures, trances
  7. Catarrh……………………………………………………………Inflammation leading to mucous discharge from nose or throat
  8. Chilblain………………………………………………………….Swelling of extremities caused by exposure to cold
  9. Child bed fever…………………………………………………Infection following birth of a child
  10. Chin cough………………………………………………………Whooping cough
  11. Chlorosis…………………………………………………………Iron-deficiency anemia
  12. Consumption…………………………………………………..Tuberculosis
  13. Falling sickness………………………………………………..Epilepsy
  14. Fatty liver………………………………………………………..Cirrhosis of the liver
  15. Fits………………………………………………………………….Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity
  16. Flux of humour………………………………………………..Circulation
  17. Grippe…………………………………………………………….Influenza
  18. Humid tetter……………………………………………………Eczema
  19. Jail fever or ship fever……………………………………..Typhus
  20. Low spirits………………………………………………………Depression
  21. Lues venereal…………………………………………………..Syphillis
  22. Morphew…………………………………………………………Scurvy blisters caused by insufficient levels of vitamin C
  23. Mortification…………………………………………………..Gangrene
  24. Podagra…………………………………………………………..Gout
  25. Puerperal exhaustion……………………………………….Death due to childbirth
  26. Puerperal fever………………………………………………..Elevated temperature after giving birth to an infant
  27. Puking fever…………………………………………………….Milk sickness
  28. Putrid fever……………………………………………………..Diphtheria
  29. Stopping………………………………………………………….Constipation
  30. Variola…………………………………………………………….Smallpox
  31. Water on the brain……………………………………………Enlarged head
  32. White swelling………………………………………………….Tuberculosis of the bone
  33. Winter fever…………………………………………………….Pneumonia
  34. Womb fever……………………………………………………..Infection of the uterus
  35. Worm fit………………………………………………………….Convulsions associated with teething, worms, elevated temperature, or diarrhea

Note that one disease name could refer to multiple afflictions, e.g., “brain fever” may refer to meningitis, encephalitis, malaria, and other conditions involving brain inflammation.

Reference:

  1. “Old Time Medical Ailments.” Barlow Genealogy. (Source: www.barlowgeneology.com/resources/sick.html).
  2. “Quick Cures/Quack Cures: New Name, Ye Same Olde Ailment.” The Wall Street Journal: Health and Wellness Section. 05/01/12. p. D3.
  3. Shaner, Arlene. Reference librarian for historical collections at the New York Academy of Medicine. 2012.

 

 

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Easy Lentil Soup (Faki Soupa)

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

This heart-healthy soup is nutritious, rich in antioxidants and fiber, filling, and delicious, hot or cold. To obtain complete protein, serve with crusty whole-grain bread, flatbread, or cooked whole grains such as brown rice, quinoa, barley, bulgar, millet, wheat berries, or pasta. I usually serve lentil soup hot over brown basmati rice, and add fresh fruit or a salad for a complete meal.

Ingredients for 12-16 servings:

  • 1/2 cup olive oil
  • 2-3 large onions, chopped
  • 4-6 carrots, peeled and chopped, or 1 (16-ounce) bag of baby carrots left whole or cut in half
  • 4-6 celery ribs, chopped
  • 4-6 garlic cloves, minced
  • Freshly ground black pepper (I use about 2 teaspoons)
  • 1 (28-ounce) can diced tomatoes with their juices or 4 cups chopped fresh tomatoes or 2 pints grape tomatoes
  • 1 pound dried lentils, picked over and rinsed
  • 4 quarts low-sodium chicken or vegetable broth
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 1 cup (or more) fresh spinach, swiss chard, kale, or collard greens, rinsed and thinly sliced, or pre-washed baby spinach leaves

Optional ingredients:

  • 4-6 tablespoons tomato paste
  • 4-6 tablespoons red wine vinegar stirred in at end of cooking
  • 1/4 cup brown rice, barley, farro, quinoa, or other whole grain
  • 1/2 cup chopped fresh, or 1 teaspoon dried, basil, mint, oregano, or parsley
  • 2 sprigs fresh thyme or 1 teaspoon dried thyme
  • 1 sprig fresh rosemary or 1 teaspoon dried rosemary
  • 1 teaspoon Herbes de Provence
  • 2 teaspoons ground cumin
  • 1 teaspoon (or more) curry powder

Directions:

Heat oil in a large soup pot (I always use my 12-quart pot to be safe, since I’m always adding more vegetables!) over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery, and stir to coat evenly with oil. Add the garlic and pepper and saute until all the vegetables are tender (but not browned) and the onions become translucent, about 8 minutes. Add the tomatoes with their juices. Simmer until the juices evaporate a little and the tomatoes break down, stirring occasionally, about 8-10 minutes. Add the lentils and mix to coat. Add the broth and herbs and stir. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and simmer over low heat, until the lentils are almost tender, about 30-45 minutes.

When using any of the optional ingredients, except for the spinach and other leafy green vegetables, add them to the pot along with the other ingredients. Spinach and other leafy green vegetables should be added to the finished soup. Stir in the greens and cook until they are just tender but still bright green. Spinach takes about a minute; kale and collard greens take longer.

This soup can easily be frozen.

Nutrition:

Per serving: Approximately 200 calories (10 from fat), 1 gram total fat, 0 g saturated fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 44 g sodium, 34 g total carbohydrate (8 g dietary fiber, 4 g sugar), 12 g protein

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A healthy diet is important for every family member, regardless of age, gender, activity level, or athletic involvement, and associated with:

  • Improved cardiovascular health, including better blood flow, delivery of oxygen and blood pressure.
  • Improved respiratory function.
  • A stronger immune system.
  • Stronger bones and muscles.
  • Improved metabolism to keep the body burning calories.

Parents of active children should encourage their families to develop healthy lifestyle habits such as:

  • Getting plenty of exercise
  • Eating primarily plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds
  • Replacing butter with healthy fats such as olive oil and canola oil
  • Using herbs, spices, and citrus juices, instead of salt, to flavor foods
  • Limiting red meat to no more than a few times a month
  • Eating fish and poultry at least twice a week
  • The importance of enjoying healthy meals with family and friends.

 

Always provide:

  • Whole grains: plain old-fashioned oatmeal, shredded wheat, wheat berries, quinoa, breads, whole wheat or spelt pasta, brown rice
  • Lean protein: organic eggs; quinoa; legumes ( A class of vegetables that include lentils, peas, and beans.); low-fat yogurt, kefir, milk; fish low in mercury and other contaminants such as Arctic Char, wild Alaskan salmon, wild Pacific cod and halibut, mahi mahi, tilapia from the U.S.A.; chicken and red meat trimmed of fat and baked, broiled, roasted, cooked in stews, or grilled.
  • Healthy fats: olive oil, hummus, wheat germ, avocados, organic or natural almond and peanut butter, unsalted nuts and seeds.
  • Vegetables: asparagus, carrots, peas, broccoli, cauliflower, bok choy, collards, kale, turnips, mustard greens, spinach, sugar snap peas, tomatoes, sweet potatoes.
  • Fruits: orange and grapefruit segments, bananas, berries, apples, pears, plums.
  • Drinks: water served throughout the day, low-fat organic milk.

Sometimes provide:

  • Prepared foods: baked chicken tenders, deli turkey, wholesome frozen meals.
  • Packaged “healthy” snacks: raisins, baby carrots, whole grain crackers and pretzels, cereal or nutrition bars (made without brown rice syrup which was recently found to contain arsenic), low-calorie ice cream or Stoneyfield organic nonfat frozen yogurt, peanut-butter crackers.
  • Sports drinks (while playing sports).
  • Canned goods: low-sodium, all natural, and preferably organic soups, vegetables, fruit, apple sauce.

Rarely provide:

  • Drinks: soda, sweet tea, fruit juices, lemonade, Kool-Aid and other “drinks”.
  • Candy: Chocolate bars, hard candy, sugary gum.
  • Highly processed foods: Pop-Tarts, “kids” cereals, cakes, cookies, danish, donuts, cheese doodles, potato chips, reduced-calorie snack packs.
  • High saturated-fat foods: bacon, sausage, most fast food, cakes, cookies, danish, donuts, hot dogs, pizza.

Never provide:

  • Processed white-flour foods: white bread, white crackers.
  • Drinks: Caffeinated energy drinks (Red Bull, Monster, 5-hour Energy).
  • Snack cakes: Twinkies, Devil Dogs, Swiss Rolls, Tastycakes.
  • Deep-fried processed foods: ramen noodles, chicken nuggets.
  • Vegetable oils: Coconut oil, palm oil, trans fats such any partially-hydrogenated oils.

*Try to select U.S.D.A. or certified organic fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods, as well as, lean meats without hormones, antibiotics, and chemicals, whenever possible. Remember to set a good example by choosing healthful foods for yourself and the rest of the family, and encourage age-appropriate play and exercise each day to help your child develop strength, flexibility, good movement patterns, and body control.

 

References:

  1. Diane. “The Mediterranean Diet: Delicious, Nutritious, and Heart-Healthy.” Dianesays.com. 12/31/11.
  2. Goodson, Amy. “Mom, I’m Hungry! Your Guide to a Kid’s Diet.” Golf Digest. May, 2012. p. 64. (Additional Source: www.golfdigest.com)

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In recent years there have been several reports of glass bakeware unexpectedly shattering and, in some cases, causing serious injury. The Consumer Product Safety Commission notes that from 1998 to 2007, almost 12,000 people went to emergency rooms for treatment of injuries from glass bakeware that was dropped and broken, or shattered during use. The number of consumers who have reported that their glass bakeware broke unexpectedly may seem small, compared to the billions of pieces of glass bakeware safely and reliably used in American kitchens for years. However, changes have occurred within the last 30 years in both the glassware and appliance industries. Therefore, cooks and their families must heed precautions to reduce the risk of serious personal injury or property damage when using any glass bakeware (4).
Since 1915, glass bakeware had been manufactured in the United States with borosilicate, a type of glass made with silica and boron oxide. Borosilicate glass is known for being more resistant to heat and thermal shock and less affected by thermal expansion or stress than any other common glass.
Today, however, all U.S.-manufactured glass bakeware, regardless of manufacturer, is made with tempered soda-lime-silicate glass. This is because, on the rare occasions when tempered soda-lime-silicate does break, it tends to break into small pieces without sharp edges. Tempered or heat-strengthened bakeware is designed to strengthen the glass to be more durable and stronger than other glass products. A similar, although not identical tempering process is used for other glass products where safety is also important, such as automobile windows, sliding glass doors, and shower doors. As a result of this tempering process, when tempered bakeware breaks, similar to other tempered safety glass products, it breaks into a many pieces, most relatively small, although some may be larger. Unlike non-tempered glass products, the tempered broken pieces generally lack sharp edges, resulting in a lower likelihood of severe cuts from the broken glass.

But when a product fails, it releases a small amount of energy, which can result in a loud sound and the glass can travel outward.

Three primary risks associated with using glassware for cooking:

  • Breakage due to a sudden temperature change applied to the glassware.
  • Breakage due to impact if the glassware is dropped or knocked against a hard object.
  • Burning when handling hot bakeware.

What causes glass bakeware to break?

Glass bakeware is a healthier alternative to metal bakeware because no hazardous materials leach into your food, and it helps to retain moisture and cooks more evenly than metal bakeware. However, like all glass, it can break. Anchor Hocking and Pyrex bakeware are safe when their care and use instructions are followed. Regardless of safety measures taken by both companies to strengthen and ensure the quality of their products, misuse can lead to failure of the bakeware.

Anchor Hocking states that the vast majority of failures are due to mishandling or improper care of the product. The misuse often happens over time, and the actual failure may occur at a later date. A few examples of mishandling are (2):

  • Scouring or improperly cleaning the bakeware.
  • Causing severe thermal shock by adding liquid to a hot dish, placing a hot dish into dishwater, or placing  a hot dish directly on a countertop, rather than using pot holders, pad or trivet.
  • Discarding chipped, cracked, or noticeably scratched bakeware products.
  • Hard hits or impacts occuring during usage, washing, or storing.
  • Cooking at a higher temperature than 425 degrees F.
  • Using glass bakeware on a stove top, or in a broiler, or toaster oven.
  • Placing glass bakeware on a recently used or still warm stovetop burner.

All glass, whether soda lime or borosilicate, can experience thermal breakage if exposed to sudden or uneven temperature changes. Avoid the most common causes of thermal breakage by following four simple rules (2, 5):

  1. Always place hot glass bakeware on a dry, cloth potholder or towel. Never place hot glass bakeware on top of a stove, metal trivet, damp potholder or towel, or directly on a countertop or other cold or wet surface, or in a sink.
  2. Never put glass bakeware directly on a heat source such as a burner, hot range, grill, or under a broiler or in a toaster oven.
  3. Always allow the oven to fully preheat before placing glass bakeware in the oven.
  4. Always cover the bottom of the glass bakeware dish with liquid before cooking meat or vegetables. The liquid, whether chicken or vegetable stock, apple juice, or water, will keep the temperature of the baking dish even and your food moist and tender.

Follow these warnings from Pyrex and World Kitchen LLC to reduce the risk of personal injury or property damage, as well as, glassware breaking or shattering immediately or later (5):

  • Do not add liquid to hot glassware. This can cause a sudden temperature change.
  • If using a dish in a microwave, do not use browning elements, and avoid overheating oil or butter.
  • Do not take dishes directly from the freezer to the oven or vice versa.
  • Inspect your glassware for chips, cracks, and scratches. Discard items with such damage.
  • To avoid risks associated with glass dishes, consider using metal bakeware for conventional and convection ovens.
  • Avoid sudden temperature changes to glassware. DO NOT add liquid to hot glassware; place hot glassware on a wet or cool surface, directly on countertop or metal surface, or in sink; or handle hot glassware with wet cloth. Allow hot glassware to cool on a cooling rack, potholder or dry cloth. Be sure to allow hot glassware to cool as provided above before washing, refrigerating or freezing.
  • Oven must be preheated before inserting glassware.
  • DO NOT use on or under a flame or other direct heat source, including on a stove top, under a broiler, on a grill or in a toaster oven.
  • Add a small amount of liquid sufficient to cover the bottom of the dish prior to cooking foods that may release liquid
  • Avoid handling hot glassware (including ware with silicone gripping surfaces) without dry potholders.
  • Avoid microwave misuse. DO NOT use glassware to microwave popcorn or foods wrapped in heat-concentrating material (such as special browning wrappers), heat empty or nearly empty glassware in microwave, or overheat oil or butter in microwave (use minimum amount of cooking time).
  • Be careful when handling broken glass because pieces may be extremely sharp and difficult to locate.
  • Handling your glassware without an appropriate degree of care could result in breakage, chipping, cracking or severe scratching. DO NOT use or repair any glassware that is chipped, cracked or severely scratched.
  • DO NOT drop or hit glassware against a hard object or strike utensils against it.

To reduce the risk of glass bakeware shattering:

  • Read and save the safety instructions on the product’s packaging.
  • Instruct all family members in the proper care and use of glass bakeware to maintain its integrity and safety.
  • Always exercise care when using glass products, especially when cooking food at high temperatures.
  • Use appropriate protection for hands, such as potholders or gloves, when handling any hot glassware.

References:

  1. Anchor Hocking Consumer Affairs Department: Allows consumers to ask any questions about using tempered glass bakeware. Contact information for the Consumer Affairs Department: Anchor Hocking, 519 Pierce Avenue, Lancaster, OH 43130 (consumer@anchorhocking.com). Hotline Telephone: 1- 800-562-7511 ext.2478.
  2. “Anchor Hocking’s Safety Record.” Complete Care and Use Instructions are available  at http://www.anchorhocking.com/Bakeware_Facts.html.
  3. “Borosilicate Glass.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 01/28/12.
  4. “Glass Bakeware that Shatters.” Consumer Reports. Yonkers, New York. January 2011. pp. 44-48.
  5. “Glassware Safety and Usage Instructions.” (Source: “Pyrex Products-Making Cooking a Little Easier.” www.pyrexware.com)
  6. “Pyrex.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 02/22/12.
  7. Wolf, Barbara.”Statement to ABC News From Anchor Hocking.” Discussed on Good Morning America: 12/07/10. Originally announced by Barbara Wolf, Senior Manager, Marketing Communications, Anchor Hocking regarding January 2011 article in Consumer Reports on Tempered Glass Bakeware on 12/06/10.

 

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Safety Concerns With Glass Bakeware

by Diane, M.P.H, M.S.

In recent years there have been several reports of glass bakeware unexpectedly shattering and, in some cases, causing serious injury. The number of consumers who have reported that their Anchor Hocking or Pyrex glassware broke unexpectedly is small compared to the billions of pieces of Anchor Hocking and Pyrex glassware safely and reliably used in American kitchens for generations. However, cooks and their families must heed certain precautions to reduce the risk of serious personal injury or property damage when using any glass bakeware (4).

 

Glass bakeware before 1980:

In 1915, Corning Glass Works introduced Pyrex kitchenware made with borosilicate glass, a type of glass made with silica and boron oxide. Borosilicate glass had first been made by the German chemist and glass technologist Otto Schott in 1893, 22 years before Corning produced the Pyrex brand (3, 6).

Borosilicate glass is known for being more resistant to thermal shock and less affected by thermal expansion or stress than any other common glass. Consequently, it is commonly used for the construction of reagent bottles used in laboratories. Borosilicate glass is sold under such trade names as Pyrex and Simax (3).

For years, cooks have safely used billions of pieces of Anchor Hocking and Pyrex glass bakeware made from borosilicate in the kitchen. Such kitchenware is generally durable, reliable, safe, and convenient for baking, serving, and storing leftovers, all in the same dish, when used according to the manufacturer’s directions.

Glass bakeware after 1980:

While European glass bakeware has always been and still is made from borosilicate, a change took place in the American glassware industry during the early 1980s. Tighter U.S. air pollution regulations and the need to reduce energy consumption caused a shift from using borosilicate to soda lime for the manufacture of glass bakeware, according to Philip Ross, a glass industry consultant in Laguna, Niguel, California. To comply with these regulations and still produce a safe and durable product, the Anchor Hocking Company changed its manufacturing process of glass bakeware, about 30 years ago, from annealed borosilicate to tempered soda-lime-silicate. Although Corning Incorporated began making some Pyrex glassware from soda lime during the 1940’s, older, clear-glass Pyrex manufactured by Corning before 1998 and Pyrex laboratory glassware has always been made of borosilicate glass (6). The European manufacturer of Pyrex, Arc International, still uses borosilicate glass in its Pyrex glass kitchen products; however, the U.S. manufacturer of Pyrex kitchenware uses tempered soda-lime glass. Therefore, Pyrex can refer to either soda-lime glass or borosilicate glass when discussing kitchen glassware, while Pyrex, Bomex, Duran, TGI and Simax all refer to borosilicate glass when discussing laboratory glassware.

 

In 1998, World Kitchen, a U.S. company based in Rosemont, Illinois, purchased the Pyrex consumer products business from Corning Incorporated. World Kitchen claims that it did not alter the product composition for Pyrex glass bakeware, has always manufactured Pyrex glass bakeware in the U.S., uses the same soda lime plant in Charleroi, Pennsylvania, to make Pyrex glass bakeware that Corning Incorporated used, and has not changed the manufacturing process or soda lime composition.

Pyrex glass cookware manufactured by World Kitchen is made of tempered soda-lime glass instead of borosilicate. World Kitchen supports this change, because soda-lime glass is cheaper to produce, the most common form of glass used in U.S. bakeware, and has higher mechanical strength than borosilicate — making it more resistant to breakage when dropped, which the company claims is the most common cause of breakage in glass bakeware. However, unlike borosilicate, it is not as heat-resistant (6).

The differences between Pyrex products depending on manufacturer have led to safety issues. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has stated that from 1998 to 2007, almost 12,000 people went to emergency rooms for treatment of injuries from glass bakeware that was dropped and broken, or shattered during use. The Commission has also received complaints that World Kitchen-produced Pyrex glassware has shattered at high temperatures. While shattering at high temperatures may be less common than breakage from being dropped, it poses a greater threat to consumers, since the glassware may break without warning. Consumer Reports magazine reviewed these complaints and determined that all of the bakeware users had assumed their bakeware would have the same characteristics and strength as the older borosilicate counterparts (4, 6).

Borosilicate versus tempered soda-lime glass:

While both borosilicate and soda lime are appropriate compositions for glass bakeware, heat-strengthened soda lime is more resistant to “impact breakage” – the far more likely cause of consumer injury, according to national emergency room data.

While more resistant to heat and thermal shock than other types of glass, borosilicate glass can still crack or shatter when subjected to rapid or uneven temperature variations. When broken, borosilicate glass tends to crack into large pieces rather than shattering. According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System data, consumers are far more likely to be injured by dropping glass bakeware than from breakage caused by sudden or uneven temperature changes.

Today, all U.S. manufactured glass bakeware, regardless of manufacturer, is made from tempered soda-lime-silicate glass. This is because, on the rare occasions when it does break, it tends to break into small pieces without sharp edges. Tempered or heat-strengthened bakeware is designed to strengthen the glass to be more durable and stronger than other glass products. A similar, although not identical tempering process is used for other glass products where safety is also important, such as automobile windows, sliding glass doors, and shower doors. As a result of this tempering process, when tempered bakeware breaks, similar to other tempered safety glass products, it breaks into a number of pieces, most relatively small, although some may be larger. Unlike non-tempered glass products, these pieces generally lack sharp edges when it does break, resulting in a lower likelihood of severe cuts from the broken glass. But when a product fails, it releases a small amount of energy, which can result in a loud sound and the glass can travel outward.

 

Three primary risks associated with using glassware for cooking:

  • Breakage due to a sudden temperature change applied to the glassware.
  • Breakage due to impact if the glassware is dropped or knocked against a hard object.
  • Burning when handling hot bakeware.

What causes glass bakeware to break?

Glass bakeware is a healthier alternative to metal bakeware because no hazardous materials leach into your food, and it helps to retain moisture and cooks more evenly than metal bakeware. However, like all glass, it can break. Anchor Hocking and Pyrex bakeware are safe when their care and use instructions are followed. Regardless of safety measures taken by both companies to strengthen and ensure the quality of their products, misuse can lead to failure of the bakeware.

Anchor Hocking states that the vast majority of failures are due to mishandling or improper care of the product. The misuse often happens over time, and the actual failure may occur at a later date. A few examples of mishandling are (2):

  • Scouring or improperly cleaning the bakeware.
  • Causing severe thermal shock by adding liquid to a hot dish, placing a hot dish into dishwater, or placing  a hot dish directly on a countertop, rather than using pot holders, pad or trivet.
  • Discarding chipped, cracked, or noticeably scratched bakeware products.
  • Hard hits or impacts occuring during usage, washing, or storing.
  • Cooking at a higher temperature than 425 degrees F.
  • Using glass bakeware on a stove top, or in a broiler, or toaster oven.
  • Placing glass bakeware on a recently used or still warm stovetop burner.

All glass, whether soda lime or borosilicate, can experience thermal breakage if exposed to sudden or uneven temperature changes. Avoid the most common causes of thermal breakage by following four simple rules (2, 5):

  1. Always place hot glass bakeware on a dry, cloth potholder or towel. Never place hot glass bakeware on top of a stove, metal trivet, damp potholder or towel, or directly on a countertop or other cold or wet surface, or in a sink.
  2. Never put glass bakeware directly on a heat source such as a burner, hot range, grill, or under a broiler or in a toaster oven.
  3. Always allow the oven to fully preheat before placing glass bakeware in the oven.
  4. Always cover the bottom of the glass bakeware dish with liquid before cooking meat or vegetables. The liquid, whether chicken or vegetable stock, apple juice, or water, will keep the temperature of the baking dish even and your food moist and tender.

Follow these warnings from Pyrex and World Kitchen LLC to reduce the risk of personal injury or property damage, as well as, glassware breaking or shattering immediately or later (5):

  • Do not add liquid to hot glassware. This can cause a sudden temperature change.
  • If using a dish in a microwave, do not use browning elements, and avoid overheating oil or butter.
  • Do not take dishes directly from the freezer to the oven or vice versa.
  • Inspect your glassware for chips, cracks, and scratches. Discard items with such damage.
  • To avoid risks associated with glass dishes, consider using metal bakeware for conventional and convection ovens.
  • Avoid sudden temperature changes to glassware. DO NOT add liquid to hot glassware; place hot glassware on a wet or cool surface, directly on countertop or metal surface, or in sink; or handle hot glassware with wet cloth. Allow hot glassware to cool on a cooling rack, potholder or dry cloth. Be sure to allow hot glassware to cool as provided above before washing, refrigerating or freezing.
  • Oven must be preheated before inserting glassware.
  • DO NOT use on or under a flame or other direct heat source, including on a stove top, under a broiler, on a grill or in a toaster oven.
  • Add a small amount of liquid sufficient to cover the bottom of the dish prior to cooking foods that may release liquid
  • Avoid handling hot glassware (including ware with silicone gripping surfaces) without dry potholders.
  • Avoid microwave misuse. DO NOT use glassware to microwave popcorn or foods wrapped in heat-concentrating material (such as special browning wrappers), heat empty or nearly empty glassware in microwave, or overheat oil or butter in microwave (use minimum amount of cooking time).
  • Be careful when handling broken glass because pieces may be extremely sharp and difficult to locate.
  • Handling your glassware without an appropriate degree of care could result in breakage, chipping, cracking or severe scratching. DO NOT use or repair any glassware that is chipped, cracked or severely scratched.
  • DO NOT drop or hit glassware against a hard object or strike utensils against it.

To reduce the risk of glass bakeware shattering:

  • Read and save the safety instructions on the product’s packaging.
  • Instruct all family members in the proper care and use of glass bakeware to maintain its integrity and safety.
  • Always exercise care when using glass products, especially when cooking food at high temperatures.
  • Use appropriate protection for hands, such as potholders or gloves, when handling any hot glassware.

References:

  1. Anchor Hocking Consumer Affairs Department: Allows consumers to ask any questions about using tempered glass bakeware. Contact information for the Consumer Affairs Department: Anchor Hocking, 519 Pierce Avenue, Lancaster, OH 43130 (consumer@anchorhocking.com). Hotline Telephone: 1- 800-562-7511 ext.2478.
  2. “Anchor Hocking’s Safety Record.” Complete Care and Use Instructions are available  at http://www.anchorhocking.com/Bakeware_Facts.html.
  3. “Borosilicate Glass.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 01/28/12.
  4. “Glass Bakeware that Shatters.” Consumer Reports. Yonkers, New York. January 2011. pp. 44-48.
  5. “Glassware Safety and Usage Instructions.” (Source: “Pyrex Products-Making Cooking a Little Easier.” www.pyrexware.com)
  6. “Pyrex.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 02/22/12.
  7. Wolf, Barbara.”Statement to ABC News From Anchor Hocking.” Discussed on Good Morning America: 12/07/10. Originally announced by Barbara Wolf, Senior Manager, Marketing Communications, Anchor Hocking regarding January 2011 article in Consumer Reports on Tempered Glass Bakeware on 12/06/10.

 

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